This Standard shall be applied in accounting for interests in joint ventures and the reporting of joint venture assets, liabilities, income and expenses in the financial statements of venturers and investors, regardless of the structures or forms under which the joint venture activities take place. However, it does not apply to venturers’ interests in jointly controlled entities held by:
(a) venture capital organisations, or
(b) mutual funds, unit trusts and similar entities including investment-linked insurance funds that upon initial recognition are designated as at fair value through profit or loss or are classified as held for trading and accounted for in accordance with IAS 39
Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement.
A joint venture is a contractual arrangement whereby two or more parties undertake an economic activity that is subject to joint control. Joint control is the contractually agreed sharing of control over an economic activity, and exists only when the strategic financial and operating decisions relating to the activity require the unanimous consent of the parties sharing control (the venturers). Control is the power to govern the financial and operating policies of an economic activity so as to obtain benefits from it.
A venturer is a party to a joint venture and has joint control over that joint venture.
Joint ventures take many different forms and structures. This Standard identifies three broad types—jointly controlled operations, jointly controlled assets and jointly controlled entities—that are commonly described as, and meet the definition of, joint ventures.
Jointly controlled operations
The operation of some joint ventures involves the use of the assets and other resources of the venturers rather than the establishment of a corporation, partnership or other entity, or a financial structure that is separate from the venturers themselves. Each venturer uses its own property, plant and equipment and carries its own inventories. It also incurs its own expenses and liabilities and raises its own finance, which represent its own obligations.
In respect of its interests in jointly controlled operations, a venturer shall recognise in its financial statements:
(a) the assets that it controls and the liabilities that it incurs; and
(b) the expenses that it incurs and its share of the income that it earns from the sale of goods or services by the joint venture.
Jointly controlled assets
Some joint ventures involve the joint control, and often the joint ownership, by the venturers of one or more assets contributed to, or acquired for the purpose of, the joint venture and dedicated to the purposes of the joint venture. The assets are used to obtain benefits for the venturers. Each venturer may take a share of the output from the assets and each bears an agreed share of the expenses incurred.
In respect of its interest in jointly controlled assets, a venturer shall recognise in its financial statements:
(a) its share of the jointly controlled assets, classified according to the nature of the assets;
(b) any liabilities that it has incurred;
(c) its share of any liabilities incurred jointly with the other venturers in relation to the joint venture;
(d) any income from the sale or use of its share of the output of the joint venture, together with its share of any expenses incurred by the joint venture; and
(e) any expenses that it has incurred in respect of its interest in the joint venture.
Jointly controlled entities
A jointly controlled entity is a joint venture that involves the establishment of a corporation, partnership or other entity in which each venturer has an interest. The entity operates in the same way as other entities, except that a contractual arrangement between the venturers establishes joint control over the economic activity of the entity.
A venturer shall recognise its interest in a jointly controlled entity using proportionate consolidation or the equity method.
Proportionate consolidation is a method of accounting whereby a venturer’s share of each of the assets, liabilities, income and expenses of a jointly controlled entity is combined line by line with similar items in the venturer’s financial statements or reported as separate line items in the venturer’s financial statements.
The equity method is a method of accounting whereby an interest in a jointly controlled entity is initially recorded at cost and adjusted thereafter for the post-acquisition change in the venturer’s share of net assets of the jointly controlled entity. The profit or loss of the venturer includes the venturer’s share of the profit or loss of the jointly controlled entity.
Transactions between a venturer and a joint venture When a venturer contributes or sells assets to a joint venture, recognition of any portion of a gain or loss from the transaction shall reflect the substance of the transaction. While the assets are retained by the joint venture, and provided the venturer has transferred the significant risks and rewards of ownership, the venturer shall recognise only that portion of the gain or loss that is attributable to the interests of the other venturers. The venturer shall recognise the full amount of any loss when the contribution or sale provides evidence of a reduction in the net realisable value of current assets or an impairment loss.
When a venturer purchases assets from a joint venture, the venturer shall not recognise its share of the profits of the joint venture from the transaction until it resells the assets to an independent party. A venturer shall recognise its share of the losses resulting from these transactions in the same way as profits except that losses shall be recognised immediately when they represent a reduction in the net realisable value of current assets or an impairment loss.
Separate financial statements of a venturer
When separate financial statements are prepared, investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates that are not classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 shall be accounted for either:
(a) at cost, or
(b) in accordance with IAS 39.
The same accounting shall be applied for each category of investments. Investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates that are classified as held for sale (or included in a disposal group that is classified as held for sale) in accordance with IFRS 5 shall be accounted for in accordance with that IFRS.
Investments in jointly controlled entities and associates that are accounted for in accordance with IAS 39 in the consolidated financial statements shall be accounted for in the same way in the investor’s separate financial statements.